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Toggle navigation Brand. Call For Abstracts Now Closed! Deadline: 29 September However, abstracts presented at local, regional or national meetings only may be submitted. Abstracts must be complete, relevant, balanced and written in high-quality English. This will help review and selection by the Scientific Committee. Abstract submission for the congress is only possible via the online submission platform — the initial submission will be through the online submission system and you will have to type or copy and paste your abstract into the online system.
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Abstracts must be submitted according to the format set out below. Presentation Format: An abstract can be submitted for presentation at the congress as either Oral or Poster presentation. Free Session Topics: Every abstract has to be assigned to one of the topics of the conference which are the terms written in bold letters in the list below.
Tissue and organ models: In vitro tissue models Cancer models Organ-on-a-chip and microfluidics Scaffold-free models and organoids Clinical applications of biomaterials: Clinical trials Clinical application Biomaterial-related clinical problems wear, metal ions etc.
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Links www. Tissue and organ models: In vitro tissue models Cancer models Organ-on-a-chip and microfluidics Scaffold-free models and organoids. In particular, PGA and PLA and their copolymers are natural polyesters normally present in the organism and therefore well tolerated. They have been used for suture threads, orthopedic screws, and prostheses manufacture since , and more recently, they have been evaluated for scaffold production and tissue engineering strategies.
Metals are particularly suitable for tissue engineering strategies for their good mechanical properties such as high elastic module, yield strength, and high ductility allowing them to bear a load without being deformed. If mechanical resistance makes them excellent candidates for scaffold production, however, the reduced cell adhesion to their surface could be a considerable limit to their use.
Among the different metals used for scaffold production, there are stainless steel, cobalt, and titanium alloys. Stainless steels are iron-based alloys with a low content of carbon and a high content of chromium. The presence of carbon ensures good mechanical properties but determines carbides formation that makes the scaffold subject to corrosion in a biological environment. Generally, the high level of chromium and molybdenum typical of these alloys increase granule size and improve mechanical properties.
Alpha alloys contain alpha stabilizers such as aluminum and gallium and are characterized by good strength, hardness, resistance sliding, and weld ability; Beta alloys contain beta stabilizers such as vanadium, niobium, and tantalus molybdenum and show good ductility. Wohlfahrt et al. Moreover, a gene expression analysis was performed considering different osteogenesis differentiation markers such as osteocalcin and collagen-I [ 36 ].
In another study, Zuchuat et al. After the explant, histological analysis showed a huge number of osteoblasts and osteocytes on the scaffold [ 37 ]. Composite scaffolds are developed combining different biomaterials such as natural or synthetic polymers PGA, PLA, gelatin, chitin, and chitosan , ceramics hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate or bioglasses , and metals. They have technological, industrial, and applicative importance since they combine biocompatibility, biodegradation, and appreciable mechanical strength. Moreover, these kinds of scaffolds could be applied for both hard and soft tissue regeneration and greatly mimic tissue architecture being composed of cells and extracellular matrix.
Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymers rich of polar moieties such as carboxyl, amide, amino, and hydroxyl groups, held together by chemical bounds or physical intra-molecular and inter-molecular attractions. Their main feature is the ability to absorb enormous amounts of water or biological fluids and swell without dissolving. According to their origin, hydrogel can be classified into natural made of polypeptides and polysaccharides , synthetic obtained by traditional polymerization , and semi-synthetic.
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Moreover, they can present an amorphous or semi-crystalline structure that can be cationic, anionic, neutral, or ampholytic. Depending on their stability in a biological system, they can be considered durable if they do not undergo chemical-physical modification or biodegradable if they degrade into oligomers, which are subsequently eliminated from the body.
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In the last decades, smart hydrogels have been developed featured by the possibility to modify their structure and mechanical properties according to environmental stimuli such as pH or temperature. Already 50 years ago, these materials have been appreciated for their chemical-physical characteristics by Wichterle and Lim , who developed a poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate -based hydrogel for contact lens [ 42 ].
Since they present a soft and rubbery consistency very similar to that of ECM of different tissues, they have been recently studied for tissue engineering strategies. In particular, hydrogels used for scaffold production may respond to important requirements such as biocompatibility and controlled in vivo biodegradation. It is very important to modulate parameters such as hydrogel cross-linking density, porosity, pore size, and interconnectivity to obtain a suitable structural for cellular colonization and proliferation.
Hydrogels can be modified at the surface by peptides or growth factor, which can promote cell attachment and differentiation process. Generally, natural hydrogels are less toxic and more tolerated than synthetic ones, and Pasqui et al , for example, developed a natural cellulose-hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel for bone tissue engineering.
For the chemical synthesis procedure, the freeze-dried hydrogel was immersed in a solution containing HA microcrystals, and then an in vitro study demonstrated that MG63 osteoblast-like human cell seeded into hydrogel samples adhered and proliferated rapidly. Synthetic hydrogels could have limitations in the biocompatibility, but they offer the possibility to modulate their mechanical features and rate of degradation in biological environment. Kinard et al. They found that the in vivo degradation rate of the hydrogel depend on the DBM content, higher was the rate of DBM faster was the degradation.
Moreover, high content of DBM could affect the mechanical properties of the hydrogel even if it increases its osteoinductivity in vitro and in vivo [ 44 ] Table 1. After the choice of the biomaterial to use for scaffold production, it is quite important to select an adequate processing technique that allows to maintain high levels of control of the macro- and micro-structural properties of the same. The processing methodology must satisfy key requirements such as: process accuracy and repeatability.
The scaffolds obtained will present regular shaped pores with consistent pore size and interconnectivity and should not show any physical-chemical variations when produced by the same method. Moreover, the processing conditions must not alter the mechanical properties of the biomaterial, and any toxic solvent used during the process must be totally removed not to limit scaffold clinical use [ 3 , 11 ].
Among the most spread processing techniques, probably the most known are those that foresee the employment of a porogenous organic or inorganic agent such as sodium chloride, sodium tartrate, sodium citrate, citric acid, or saccharose. Mikos et al. In this case, the porous agent is dispersed in appropriate solvent and then the dispersion is processed by casting or by freeze-drying. However, the method presents some disadvantages like time consuming it is necessary to wait for days or weeks for solvent evaporation and the use of toxic organic solvents [ 46 ].
The mold is then heated above the glass transition temperature of the polymer and at last the obtained solid is immersed in a solvent to promote the dissolution of the porogens. A good variant of melt molding is extrusion or injection molding proposed by Gomes et al. During the heating process, the blowing agent degraded producing carbon dioxide which formed interconnected and well-shaped pores [ 48 ].
Gas foaming is an high pressure processing technique described by Mooney et al who produced sponges of poly D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid without the use of organic solvents. Solid disks of the polymer are exposed to high pressure CO 2 5. It brings CO 2 to abandon the polymer forming well-shaped pores [ 49 ].
After the polymer solubilization in a suitable solvent, the solution is dissolved in water that provokes the polymer precipitation. Obviously, it is possible to modulate the characteristics of the scaffolds obtained through this method by varying the polymer concentration but also the temperature of the solution. Holy et al. Another interesting method is the fiber bonding. It allows obtaining scaffolds containing a dense frame of synthetic fibers that form a sufficiently porous three-dimensional structure.
It can be applied to obtain both natural and synthetic scaffolds [ 51 ].
At last, the progress of computer technology led to the development of new techniques like solid freeform fabrication SSF whose introduction has signed a new era for manufacturing industry. These techniques allow to produce layer-by-layer 3D objects starting from information generated by CAD system or computer-based medical imaging modalities.
Obviously, the use of a computerized production system saves time and modulates with extreme precision parameters related to the micro and macro architecture of the scaffold. The first SFF technique used for tissue engineering purpose was 3D printing. This technique uses a printer head that places a liquid binder onto thin layers of powder following the object shape generated by a CAD system.
Using this technique, Kim et al. In this case, a filament of thermoplastic material is fed and melted inside a heated liquifier head and then it is forced out by an extruder and deposited on a platform. Layer by layer, the 3D object is then obtained. By varying the direction of material deposition for each layer, it is possible to change the pore size and interconnectivity of the scaffold.
One of the current problems in orthopedic clinic is represented by bone lesions caused by traumas, cancer resection degenerative diseases, or nonunion of fractures, which do not heal spontaneously but require surgical procedures.
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