Paris : Charpentier, , — Lacroix, ; chap. Paris : E. Grauz, , — Houssaye ibid. In the s, Watteau's oeuvre was still being sorted out.
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Gozlan ibid. Like Gozlan, Hugo seems to have had a muddled sense of Watteau's oeuvre and may be thinking here of Christophe Huet's singeries which were ascribed to Watteau in the early nineteenth century; see n. Huet par J. Louisa E. Leipzig : Hetzel, , Zakir Paul London : Verso, , 80— A recent version of the streetwise urban clown who refuses victimhood was developed by Damon Wayans for the Fox Broadcasting Company television series In Living Color —94 ; Wayans played the character Homey D. Clown as an antisocial exconvict who is demeaned and angered by the work he finds as a birthday party entertainer.
According to McCormick, Popular Theatres of Nineteenth-Century France 39 , Funambules productions of the s were of the hybrid form called vaudeville pantomimique talking pantomimes , and speechless mimes were becoming rarities.
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Deburau was not only acquitted but also warmly received when he returned to the stage. Gautier , L'art dramatique , It is somewhat ironic that Watteau, considered more Flemish than French in his own time, was thus embraced in the nineteenth century. Goncourt and Goncourt , Manette Salomon , — Organized to benefit the recently founded Association des Peintres d'Histoire et de Genre, Sculpteurs, Graveurs, Architectes et Dessinateurs, the exhibition was staged on the top floor of the Bazar Bonne-Nouvelle, a new Parisian shopping complex, from January to March Goncourt and Goncourt , Manette Salomon , Initially criticized for its focus on David and his school, the show was expanded by a vote of its governing committee to include some representatives of the Romantic and Barbizon schools see Andrew Shelton , Ingres and His Critics [ New York : Cambridge University Press, ], n Anatole's painting would have been one of the late entries added to appease those who found the original selection of works too traditionalist.
See Marika T. Daragon, , 1—2, 5—8. For an account of the painting's inspiration an infamous duel between Pierre Deluns-Montaud and Symporien-Casimir-Joseph Boitelle, likewise treated by Thomas Couture and its international afterlife, see Coleman O. The center of French pantomime shifted south in the s; after taking his Pierrot to Brazil, Legrand spent most of that decade performing in Bordeaux, where Charles Deburau died in ; see Storey, A Critical History , — Daumier seems to pay homage to Deburau in his undated Head of a Clown private collection, Short Hills, NJ , the bust-length image of a gaunt and sunken-eyed Pierrot in black skullcap.
See T. As Clark ibid. Banville , Les pauvres saltimbanques , Jules Michelet , Histoire de France , 19 vols. Paris : Chamerot, —67 , The exhibition was organized by Philippe Burty. Claye, , no. Manet's boy differs significantly from both Pierrots, however, in age, stature, gaze, and attire. Michelet , Histoire de France , , —6. As the Goncourts ibid. Paris : Librairie Internationale, , —51, at In Manette Salomon , the Goncourts describe a similarly double-sided comedian: Anatole appears at a masquerade party in a white blouse and proceeds to delight the crowd with clownish acrobatics, then disappears to change his clothes and persona.
Verlaine not only asserts Pierrot's lack of gaiety but also describes him as a spook whose shroudlike blouse billows in a cold wind.
Along with the frightening Pierrot of Verlaine's poem see n. Morton London : Chapman and Hall, , For the origins of their name change in the late s, see Cosdon, The Hanlon Brothers , 47— The reattachment of severed heads was the happy denouement of Le Frater du Village , a sketch the Hanlons began performing in Rachael Langford Amsterdam : Rodophi, , — Jean Richepin, Braves gens Paris, , 6. Adolphe Willette , Feu Pierrot, —19—? Paris : H. Floury, , Among its most visible contemporary enactments are Michael Geier's Puddles see puddlespityparty.
A pathetic clown-school dropout, Baskets, who once aspired to classic French miming, must resign himself to work as a rodeo clown in Bakersfield, California. Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere.
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Advanced search. Journal homepage. Judy Sund View further author information. Pages Published online: 06 Sep Why So Sad? Watteau's Pierrots. Additional information Author information Judy Sund. For the text of the poem, see Rosenberg, Vies anciennes , 24— Hugounet, Mimes et Pierrots , Clark, The Absolute Bourgeois , Palacio, Pierrot fin-de-siecle , Article Metrics Views. Article metrics information Disclaimer for citing articles. But the nobles also saw a deeper problem: As most noblemen described it, reality lay in particulars and often could not be captured in more general formulations.
A further problem for political knowledge lay in the evolving nature of reality itself.
Retz made the uncertainties of political reality the central theme of his memoirs; and though his explanations for uncertainty varied widely, ultimately he emphasized the inadequacy of either the past or common sense as a guide. People's expectations of the possible, Retz argued repeatedly, touched only a small part of what might actually happen: One finds there facts so opposed to one another that they are unbelievable. But experience teaches us. The seventeenth century's great examples of political success strengthened this conviction that the polity was fundamentally impervious to rational understanding.
Richelieu's successes, both within France and within Europe as a whole, seemed as inexplicable to contemporary nobles as their own failures. Richelieu's success, he wrote, came, not from "his wise choices [ sa bonne conduite ], which I have not noticed ,. In fact this genius carries an indefinable impression of such absolute power over those who let themselves be guided by it, that it is only with an effort that one opposes its will. Such leaders, Campion and his friends concluded, transcended normal analysis. Seventeenth-century nobles employed a variety of metaphors as they sought to convey their vision of political situations as unstable and deceptive.
We have seen the readiness of some to turn to the notion of fortune. Others used religious images. Do you believe that all these actions occur by chance? No, no, avoid such thoughts; it's God who guides it all, and whose plans always command adoration, though to us they be bitter and hidden. And if we lose sight of this divine Providence?
Without it, one would have to hang oneself five or six times a day. Political life displayed choices so contrary to the actors' interests and personalities that the "blindness of which Scripture speaks so often is, even in human terms, sensible and palpable in men's actions. But the most common metaphors for political life derived from the theater.
Saint-Evremond managed to combine theatrical and commercial imagery to suggest the inevitability of misperception and failure in court society: Roger Gailly, 3 vols. On the interaction of theater and money in early modern culture, see Jean-Christophe Agnew, Worlds Apart: It offered powerful images for the contrast that he perceived between the knowledgeable few and the deluded many, contrasting the inner workings of the political "machine" an image that he took from the stage with what the spectators in the audience could see and understand.
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Even Retz's discussion of political possibility, his belief that reality was more varied than common sense might anticipate, derived from theatrical problems and language. This language echoed contemporary debate surrounding the vraisemblable and its relationship to both the possible and the real. Corneille arrived at an opposite emphasis from Retz's: Politics was the art of the possible, but the politician's task was to understand what was possible in larger terms than contemporary understanding of vraisemblance permitted.
However they were used, theatrical images of political life carried uncomfortable associations. Retz used the theater to stress the dishonesties that constituted political life. Pascal underlined another source of discomfort in metaphors of theater, contrasting the flimsiness of the theater-state with the straightforward realities of violence: That is why our kings have not attempted to.
They have not dressed up in extraordinary clothes to show what they really are, but they have themselves surrounded by guards, scarred veterans. They do not wear the trappings, they simply have the power. Theatrical power of the sort represented by the magistrate might function effectively, persuading some to follow its directions, for illusion and imagination have a grip on nearly everyone. The realities of power, though, lay elsewhere, in the instruments of violence. Pascal's vision of politics thus differed sharply from Retz's, but shared common emphases and language.
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Both pointed to the theatrical form of political and social life; both saw much of this life in terms of flux, imagination, deception. Ultimately, then, theatrical imagery suggested a troubling view of the polity's moral stature. Contemporaries continued into the late seventeenth century to link the theater with a variety of vices: There was no assurance that a Christian theater could exist at all.
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