Rock and roll became known in the Soviet Union in the s and quickly broke free from its. Stingray sent copies of the release to Ronald Reagan and Gorbachev,. Considering its poetic roots Russian literature, bard music , it is not a big. History baking and confectionery industry, the sugar, alcohol, and liqueur industries, the fats and perfume and cosmetic industries, List of ministers The Soviet Union Under Gorbachev Routledge Revivals : Prospects for Reform.
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The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on 26 December , officially granting. Under Gorbachev's leadership, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union or men's cologne, resulting in an additional burden on Russia's healthcare..
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This is a list of Ig Nobel Prize winners from to the present day. A parody of the Nobel. Russian oil exploration began in the s near Baku on the Caspian Sea. Oil production did not take off under communism until after World War II when it became increasingly productive and efficient. The production and use of energy declined after the fall of communism even as the economy also suffered from the virtual collapse of the second leg of the Soviet economic system, the defense industry. Restructuring of the state-controlled Russian oil sector began in the early s, building on changes that had occurred under Mikhail Gorbachev, and surged in and after the mids when major portions of the state industry were sold to private buyers in auctions.
Today the private companies including Yukos, Tyumen Oil [TNK] are more efficiently run than state companies, and this is one of the reasons the government reportedly intends to divest itself of its remaining minority holdings in oil companies by During the first seven months of , oil output averaged 8. The recent increase in production is not due mainly to tapping new fields, though new reserves have been found, but to reviving and streamlining the Soviet period production, in large part through privatization, and exporting a higher percentage of the product.
Still, major new investments in technological renovation will be required for Russia to maintain its high levels of production in the decades that follow and much of that must come via merger and acquisition, both within the Russian domestic market and with international industries. At the energy session in St. With the revival of the oil industry, exports to the European Union EU have risen to 39 percent because the demand there is high, and payments are in cash.
An energy summit with the EU in October brought a European pledge to help develop Russian reserves in return for a long-term energy commitment to the EU.
Thus shipments to the EU are projected to rise to some 45 percent in the years ahead. It projected a 30—35 percent increase in the production of primary fuel and energy resources, the continued importance of the European market, an expansion of oil deliveries to Asia from the current 3 percent to 30 percent of sales, and greater attention to the Americas.
Russia is the largest country in the world, and most of it is undeveloped. That means it is often very difficult to explore, extract, process and transport oil from a site. There are the older fields, mainly in western Siberia, that while they still produce the bulk of the product know that their years are numbered. Estimates range from the eighth largest to perhaps the largest in the world. The Russians have strong interest also in the oil produced in neighboring countries, and in pipelines passing through other countries, most of which were part of the now defunct Soviet Union.
Private and state-owned energy companies have also become very active throughout the region. The impact of terrorist attacks on the oil industry, which was the subject of the James Bond film The World Is Not Enough , became reality in post—Saddam Hussein Iraq and could become enormously disruptive to the Russian system. Also, threats to the environment have resulted in destruction and promise more.
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Governments and environmental groups have responded, with reasonable and sometimes unreasonable demands. Nordic and Baltic states say Russian tankers in northern seas are a threat to the Arctic environment. Some pressure groups have advanced environmental interests, while others have weakened them. During the Soviet period, oil exports left Russia proper through what are now independent countries. The main export pipeline to eastern Europe was the Druzhba Friendship , with a northern branch that passed through Belarus to Poland and eastern Germany and a southern branch that crossed northern Ukraine to Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
Of course, the collapse of the Soviet Union led to the formation of independent countries in the Baltics, as well as in other parts of the former Soviet empire, and Russia now finds itself having to pay transit fees to foreign businesses or states for continuing exports through ports from the Baltics to Ukraine.
Considerable Russian oil still goes through Baltic ports in late , the main exception being Ventspils, and most of it is transported to Western Europe. European Russia now has two important seaport terminals of its own, Novorossiisk on the Black Sea and Primorsk, northwest of St.
Petersburg on the Gulf of Finland, and others are planned. Central Asian countries that ship oil by Russian pipelines include Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, and discussions or pledges of cooperation in joint programs, investments, etc. Another infrastructure problem is that nowhere do tankers have access to a deepwater port where crude oil can be transported long distances in an economically sound and environmentally safe way.
Novorossiisk, the Baltic ports and Primorsk have constraints on the size of tankers that can transit the neighboring waterways and straits. Thus long-distance markets such as America, China and the Asia-Pacific are still mainly targets for the future. These markets require access to deep water ports, or new, long-distance pipelines, or some combination of the two.
Russia has many pipelines within its national boundaries and into neighboring countries. The main ones aimed at Russian ports today are:.
Russia's Oil in America's Future: Policy, Pipelines, and Prospects | Hoover Institution
Though U. Some relate to broad international developments that are largely or entirely out of the control of companies and sometimes even governments. Or in reactions to such issues as terrorists emanating from Afghanistan, radical Islamic teachings fostered by Saudi Arabia, Pakistan or other countries, the increasing U.
The fallout of political conflict in and over Iraq both threatened the loss of Russian investments there and prompted a record growth in the sale of Russian oil to the United States as a result of the shutting down of Iraqi sources. Two months later Russia and Saudi Arabia signed a cooperation agreement in the oil and gas sectors, and on 2 September, Crown Prince Abdullah met Putin in Moscow, the highest level visit since diplomatic relations were established in A particularly unsettling issue for some major investors is the availability or unavailability of production-sharing agreements PSAs in particularly risky investment areas.
One high U. In particular, with oil prices high, business booming and seeming adequate resources available, some private companies like Yukos see little need for PSAs, while less efficient and less resource-endowed, state-controlled or state-oriented companies are more receptive. The former prefer to sell substantial degrees of stock to foreign investors, as TNK did during when it sold 50 percent of its stock to British Petroleum, and to adopt more nearly international accounting standards and business practices and management structures, though even here the adaptation to Western practices is less than complete.
The events of the Yukos affair that began in mid warrant special attention because they dramatically raised many questions about the state of the legal system, the security of property rights, the roles and strength of squabbling factions within the Kremlin, the population more broadly, the prospects for improving U. Putin refused to become openly involved in what seemed to be a showdown between two factions within the government until the end of September when he said what distinguished the Yukos case was murder. Their incomes and lifestyles contrast sharply with the modest means of most Russians, the vast majority of whom see the oligarchs as crooks.
So a deal was struck whereby the president would leave the oligarchs alone if the latter minded their businesses, helped develop the country and stayed out of politics. Two prominent media oligarchs Vladimir Gusinsky and Boris Berezovsky were driven into exile before in part because they became involved in politics. Khodorkovsky also became politically active, giving money to opposition political parties and seeming to develop a base for possible political power for himself.
Many Russians also worry about U. This article attempts to suggest some of the main lessons about democratization that may be derived from the study of the experience of post-communist Russia, seen in a comparative perspective. The thesis that the first competitive national election after the downfall of an authoritarian regime marks a decisive breakthrough for forces striving for democratization has not proved true for Russia. Yet the withering of democracy and the consolidation of a semi-authoritarian regime followed the period of competitive elections in Russia. In the early and mids scholars who had specialized in the study of communist regimes warned that the post-communist states would need to carry out radical economic and social changes as well as sweeping political transformation.
In Russia, however, the consequences of a corrupted process of privatization of state assets were enormously damaging for the institutionalization of democracy. As was shown in a number of countries in the s and s, a strong civil society can play an important role in a nation's transition to democracy. The barriers to the development of civil society within the Soviet system and the conditions causing weakness in social organizations in post-communist Russia made it easier for members of the elite to subvert reform and guaranteed that there would be fewer restraints on the tendency toward more authoritarian control after Among post-communist nations, those in which a consensus of most segments of the elite and the public was committed to a radical break with the old system have been much more successful in carrying out marketization and democratization.
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