China's modern history – in pictures
Russia is withdrawing her envoy from the present Nationalist headquarters at Canton. This was written last July to commemorate the twenty-eighth anniversary of the founding of the Chinese Communist party. Mao begins by accepting the old-fashioned Marxist dogma in its most doctrinaire form. Mao does not offer much hope of any accommodation between the Chinese Communist State and the West. Mao expects help only from Russia. He admits that Communist government in China will be dictatorial.
The right of reactionaries to voice their opinions must be deprived and only the people are allowed to have the right of voicing their opinions…To the hostile classes, the State apparatus is the instrument of oppression. It is violent, not benevolent. A united China, a country with a common purpose, can stand strong against outsiders, according to this narrative. A divided China could slip backward, losing decades of progress and plunging the country back into chaos. Any Chinese person who has gone to elementary school or watched television news can explain the tale of China's years of humiliation.
Starting with the Opium Wars in the 19th century, foreign powers bullied a weak and backward China into turning Hong Kong and Macau into European colonies. Students must memorize the unequal treaties the Qing dynasty signed during that period. When it does include the crackdown on protesters in Tiananmen Square, the protest and its aftermath is mentioned in one sentence and portrayed vaguely as a political incident.
These lessons and propaganda sound crude, but they work. Today, I regularly use that airport, a marvel of modern transportation , as do millions of others. Territorial integrity achieved! At the graduate school of journalism at Columbia University in , one American student told me about his trip to Tibet. It has nothing to do with China. But her struggle to unlearn what her parents taught her felt familiar to me after I left China and began to learn its history on my own. Instead, the party is narrowing them more.
Education officials over the past two years have been increasingly enforcing a widely ignored effort to make education even more Chinese focused. Some universities have replaced textbooks by Western academics such as Milton Friedman and N.
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Textbook publishers have cut back on essays by Lu Xun, a writer known for his acerbic criticism of the nationalist government in the s and s. The Customs shall collect duties and taxes on the bonded materials according to law against the approved documents on importation for home use for certain reasons, provided that the bonded materials for or the products from inward processing are placed under home use. Where restrictions are laid down by the State, licensing documents for importation shall also be required to be submitted to the Customs.
Article 34 The special Customs controlling areas such as bonded areas authorized by the State Council to be established in the territory of the People's Republic of China, shall be in the execution of control by the Customs in accordance with the relevant national provisions.
Article 35 Customs formalities for import goods shall be completed by the importer at the Customs office through which the goods enter the territory; those for export goods shall be completed by the exporter at the Customs office through which the goods depart from the territory. If applied for by the importer or the exporter and approved by the Customs, Customs formalities for import goods may be completed at the Customs office of destination, and those for export goods at the Customs office of departure.
The transport under Customs transit shall comply with the control requirements by the Customs. When necessary, the goods may be transported under Customs escort. Where the goods enter or leave the territory by electric cables, pipelines or other special means of conveyance, the importers shall report at regular intervals to the designated Customs office and complete Customs formalities as required.
Article 36 All transit, transshipment and through goods shall be truthfully declared by the carrier to the Customs office through which the goods enter the territory, and shall be transported out of the territory within the designated time limit. Article 37 The goods under Customs control, without Customs permission, shall not be opened, taken, delivered, forwarded, changed, repacked, mortgaged, pledged, held a lien, transferred the ownership, changed the marks, used for other purpose or disposed by other means.
Seals affixed by the Customs shall not be opened or broken without Customs authorization. Where a people's court delivers a verdict, ruling or an administrative authority concerned makes a decision to dispose of the goods under Customs control, the person concerned is required to accomplish all the necessary Customs formalities.
Article 38 The enterprises dealing in storage of Customs warehoused goods are required to be registered with the Customs and complete the formalities of receipt, storage and delivery in accordance with Customs provisions. The storage of the goods under Customs control outside Customs surveillance zone is subject to Customs approval and control.
Those violating the provisions of the preceding two paragraphs or causing destruction or irrecoverable loss of the goods, with the exception of force majeure, the person who is responsible for keeping the goods under Customs control, is subject to the payment of duties and taxes as well as legal liability accordingly. Article 39 The Customs General Administration shall draw up, independently or jointly with the departments concerned under the State Council, rules for control over inward and outward containers; rules for control over the salvage of inward and outward goods and sunken vessels; rules for control over inward and outward goods involved in small volumes of border transactions and other rules over inward and outward goods not specified concretely in this Law.
Article 40 Where the State specifies the provisions in respect of prohibitions or restrictions on inward and outward goods and articles, Customs shall carry out control in accordance with laws, administrative regulations, and the provisions of the State Council or the provisions laid down by its departments concerned who are authorized upon laws and administrative regulations. The detailed rules of control shall be specified by the Customs General Administration.
Article 41 The origin of import and export goods shall be determined according to the provisions on the rules of origin laid down by the State. Article 42 The classification of import and export goods shall be decided according to the provisions on the classification of commodities laid down by the State.
Customs may require the importer of import goods and the exporter of export goods to provide with the information indispensable for determination of classification. Customs may, whenever necessary, carry out laboratory analysis and inspection and such results confirmed by Customs shall be taken as the basis of classification. Article 43 Customs may issue administrative rulings on pre-classification, etc. The administrative rulings on pre-classification of certain goods, etc. The administrative rulings on classification made by Customs shall be publicized.
Article 44 Customs may carry out protection of intellectual property rights, which are related to import and export goods according to laws and regulations. Where the status of intellectual property rights need to be declared to the Customs, the importer of import goods and the exporter of export goods as well as their agents are required to make an accurate declaration and submit legal certificates for intellectual property rights to the Customs according to the provisions of the State. Article 45 Customs are entitled to carry out Customs audit over accounts, accounting vouchers, declaration documents and other relevant information as well as the import and export goods of the enterprises and institutions directly related to import and export within the period of three years from the date of release of import and export goods or within the period when the bonded goods, goods relieved or deducted from duties and taxes are subject to Customs control and of three years thereafter.
The detailed rules shall be laid down by the State Council.
Article 46 Inward and outward luggage carried by travellers and inward and outward postal items shall be limited to reasonable quantities for personal use and subject to Customs control. Article 47 All inward and outward articles shall be accurately declared to the Customs by the owner and subject to Customs examination. Seals affixed by the Customs are not allowed to be opened or broken without authorization. Article 48 The loading, unloading, transshipment and transit of inward and outward mailbags shall be subject to Customs control.
A waybill shall be submitted to the Customs by the postal service.
The postal service shall inform the Customs in advance of the schedule for the opening and sealing of international mailbags. The Customs shall dispatch officers on time for the purpose of control and examination on the spot. Article 49 Inward and outward postal items are not allowed to be posted or delivered by the operators unless they have been released after Customs examination.
Article 50 Articles upon approval by and registration with the Customs, temporarily entering or leaving the territory with the exemption from duties and taxes, are required to be taken out or brought in by the person, who originally carried them into or outside the territory. Transit passengers are not allowed to leave in the territory, the articles they bring in, without Customs approval.
Article 51 The Customs shall, in accordance with Article 30 of this Law, dispose of the inward and outward articles declared to be abandoned by the owner, the articles for which the Customs formalities are not completed or to which no one makes a claim and inward postal items which can neither be delivered nor be returned. Article 52 Inward and outward articles for official or personal use by foreign missions or personnel enjoying diplomatic privileges and immunities shall be dealt with in accordance with the related laws and administrative regulations.
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Chapter V Customs Duties. Article 53 Customs duties shall be collected on goods permitted to be imported or exported and on articles permitted to enter or leave the territory by the Customs according to law. Article 54 The importer of import goods, the exporter of export goods and the owner of inward and outward articles shall be the persons obliged to pay Customs duties.
Article 55 The Customs valuation of import and export goods shall be determined by the Customs on the basis of the transaction value of the goods. If the transaction value cannot be ascertained, the Customs valuation shall be determined by the Customs according to law. The Customs valuation of inward and outward articles shall be determined by the Customs according to law. Article 56 Duty reduction or exemption shall be granted to the following import and export goods and inward and outward articles:. Article 57 Duty reduction or exemption may be granted to import and export goods of specific areas, specific enterprises or for specific purposes.
The State Council shall define the scope and formulate the rules of such duty reduction or exemption. All import goods to which duty reduction or exemption have been granted in accordance with the preceding paragraph shall be used only in specific areas, specific enterprises or for specific purposes. They shall not be utilized otherwise unless Customs approval is obtained and duties are paid.
Article 58 Ad hoc duty reduction or exemption not within the scope specified in Article 56 and the first paragraph of Article 57 of this Law shall be decided by the State Council. Article 59 Temporary duty reduction or exemption shall be granted to goods approved by the Customs as temporary import or export goods and to bonded goods imported by special permission after the importer or exporter of the goods submits to the Customs a deposit of an amount equal to the duties or provides a security.
Article 60 The person obliged to pay the Customs duties and taxes on import and export goods shall pay the amount payable within 15 days from the date of issuance of the duty memorandum. In case of failure to meet this time limit, a fee for delayed payment shall be imposed by the Customs. Where the person obliged to pay the Customs duties and taxes or the surety fails to pay the duties within 3 months, the Customs may take the following coercive measures on approval of the director of regional Customs or the authorized director of the subordinate Customs:.
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Customs shall impose a fee for delayed payment of duties which has not been paid by the obligatory duty payer or the surety at the same time while taking the coercive measures. The payment of duties on inward or outward articles shall be made prior to their release by the obligatory duty payer.
Article 61 Where there is an obvious indication of transferring, concealing the duty-payable goods and other property by the obligatory duty payer of the import or export goods before the due date of duty payment, the Customs may ask the obligatory duty payer to provide a security; If he cannot provide a security for duty payment, the Customs may take the following measures to secure the collection of duties and taxes on approval of the director of regional Customs or the authorized director of the subordinate Customs:.
The Customs shall discharge the measures to secure the duties as soon as the obligatory duty payer pays the duties before the due date of duty payment; The Customs may, on approval of the director of regional Customs or the authorized director of subordinate Customs, inform the bank in which the obligatory duty payer has opened an account or other financial institution to deduct the amount of duties due from the deposits which has been suspended in written form, or sell the goods or other property detained to offset the duties according to law.
If the measures to secure duties are taken in an improper way, or the Customs fails to discharge the measures for secure the Customs duties when the obligatory duty payer has paid the duties before the due date, and damages are caused to the legitimate interest of the obligatory duty payer, the Customs shall bear its compensation liability according to law.
Article 62 Where the Customs finds that the duties are short-levied or not levied on a consignment of import or export goods or on inward or outward articles after the release, the Customs shall collect the money payable from the obligatory duty payer within one year of the previous duty payment or the release of the item. If the short-levied or non-levied duties are attributable to the duty payer's violation of the Customs regulations, the Customs may collect the unpaid amount from him within 3 years.
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Article 63 Where the duties are over-levied, the Customs, upon discovery, shall refund the money without delay. The obligatory duty payer may ask the Customs for refunding within one year of the date of duty payment. Article 65 The collection of taxes collected by the Customs on behalf of other government departments at importation of the goods shall be dealt in accordance with relevant provisions for collection of Customs duties.
Chapter VI Customs Security. Article 66 In case where the importer or exporter asks the Customs to release the goods before the determination of goods classification or Customs valuation, or presentation of effective declaration documents or completion of other Customs formalities, the Customs shall release the goods against the securities provided by the importer or exporter which is compatible with his legal obligation according to law.
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