Slightly different is the case which includes women staff members and women or wives of delegates in national delegations:. The multinational corporations are giving rise to a new kind of dependent body, namely trade unions of employees of specific multinationals:. Delegates may meet within a social setting which itself may be recognized as a pressure group:. As such it is more typical of some inter-governmental bodies. Mention should also be made here of the semi-autonomous nature of some regionally or functionally specialized bodies of larger organizations.
These are considered separately below. In effect the membership of such bodies exchange democratic procedures for some other ordering mechanism in which they have greater confidence. In the case of the United Kingdom, the Crown authorizes many "royal societies" with Commonwealth-wide membership.
Although organizations of this kind may be democratically structured in all other respects, it is clear that any such charter may be revoked and this possibility would tend to ensure a special sensitivity to the wishes and interests of the Pope and the Crown respectively. In practice this may lead to the appointment within the organization of "advisory" councils largely made up of people with the desired sensitivity.
These are also referred to as "first" male and "second" female orders. In addition there are many kinds of "third" mixed lay orders, confraternities and secular "institutes":. Aside from the reasonably visible orders cited above, the many secret societies also belong to this type although because they are secret it is not usual to take them into consideration as varieties of INGOs.
Orders of chivalry are of special interest because of their historical importance as an early form of non-governmental actor for example the Europe-wide role of the Order of Knights Templar and its network of commanderies prior to its dissolution in the 14th century and their intimate relationship to monarchies and nobility, religious or military hierarchies, or other powerful and well-connected groups - even at the present time. Boalt et al 23 have examined the European orders as organizations from a sociological perspective. A register of genuine orders of chivalry has been produced by the International Commission for Orders of Chivalry 24 whose secretary-general has reviewed the problems of distinguishing between such orders, although without considering non-chivalric orders such as the freemasons which he notes as having been allegedly created following the suppression of some of the early orders of chivalry It is not always clear whether such regional groupings are deliberate creations of the international body and thus a form of sub-grouping or whether they are independent bodies which may establish or break formal links to the international body.
Again it is not always clear whether such functional groupings are deliberate creations of the international body or whether they are independent bodies which may establish or break formal links in the international body.
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The membership may also include individuals. Clear examples in the case of INGOs are:. An equally complex situation occurs with the various independent international scientific unions some with other international scientific bodies as members which are themselves members of the International Council of Scientific Unions. In addition these members may group together in various combinations with the encouragement of ICSU to form interunion commissions on special topics.
In the case of the IGOs, examples are:. Such "organizations" when contacted will often vigorously deny that they are organizations and will particularly insist that they do not belong to the same class as conventional IGOs or INGOs, which they may well perceive as ineffective. Highly publicized intergovernmental groups of this kind include:. More or less formal organizations within a number of countries simply recognize each others' existence and engage in informal exchanges, possibly leading to a harmonization of policies or various forms of joint action.
At one extreme this merely constitutes a normal stage prior to the formation of any conventional international body or any substitute for it , but of more interest is the deliberate use of this approach as a means of avoiding the international formalization of a well-developed multi-national relationship, as is the case with various movements: guru-based, alternative-technology, alternative-lifestyle, radical or revolutionary politics, etc. This is also a characteristic of invisible colleges and some scholarly networks which do not need to be encumbered with any formal organization because of the frequency of contact between those involved.
Many international organizations may be usefully characterized by the emphasis they give to a particular mode of action. The emphasis may even be reflected in the actual name of the organization, thus distinguishing it from the majority of organizations possibly to the point of raising the questions as to whether it really should be considered as an organization.
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The modes of action concerned are listed below. In each case examples of international bodies are given. In most cases the names of the bodies provide sufficient clue to the manner in which the organization is oriented by the mode in question. Some of the commodity arrangements renewable after one or more years result in the dissolution of the administering body at the end of each such period and its continuation under the new agreement.
It is interesting to split off from the complete range of international organizations those bodies which can usefully be grouped in terms of some general preoccupation as contrasted with a more conventional classification by subject. Finally there is a further group of employer organizations, possibly associated with particular industries.
In addition for economic occupations there are organizations associated with social and recreational activities. A number of bodies which may be called "international" can be usefully characterized by peculiarities in their geographic orientation or distribution of membership. These may be grouped as follows:.
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Of special interest are those associated with schools for children of international officials:. A special case occurs where there is some intent to inhibit activity in the territory, such as by boycott. Some bodies whose names appear to limit the distribution of membership in fact have members from other regions with equal voting rights. Not to be forgotten in this connection are the personnel associations described under 4. Other examples, which have not yet given rise to permanent international bodies, may be found associated with land-locked countries and arid, tropical or mountainous regions.
The city may be that of the secretariat and regular meeting point:. There are many organizations which are primarily national but which nevertheless are mainly concerned with operational programmes usually aid or relief in other countries. An older variation on this form is the missionary society, although increasingly such societies dispatch missionaries from several base countries.
The preoccupation is generally academic but may include an attempt to educate a selected group eg policy makers or the public. This may be for prestige reasons but it may also be based on an honest but very simple, interpretation of the meaning of "international". There is a whole range of organizations based in the United States, possibly with a small proportion of membership in other countries often Canada or Mexico which are named "International This is especially true of labour unions and trade associations.
It is useful to note that federated states may legitimately give rise to a wide range of "inter-governmental" organizations at the federal level with names having a form indistinguishable from that of conventional intergovernmental bodies. There is however a development of this form in which one of the partners is a continental grouping but in which each member is of equal status. The last example is in fact a federation of bilateral organizations. These are of special interest in the case of inter-governmental bodies, which may not exclude extension of membership to other countries:.
Others give recognition to a major worker or leader in their special field when an organization is formed to develop that or related work. An interesting variation on this is a body whose membership is restricted to former students of an individual and more recently to students of the original students. Another well-developed variation of this group is the religious order inspired by the work and rules of a particular individual.
The identity of the individual may not necessarily be present in the organization name. Bodies of this kind which operate internationally are a relatively recent phenomenon although their number is now increasing rapidly. These are discussed above: 4. Whilst presenting all the characteristics of a conventional organization and few of the charismatic variety noted above , such bodies may thus be nurtured through to non-dependence on the individual, although such a presence may be essential during the early growth stages.
Clearly if the organization does not "take wing", such bodies may then be perpetuated as shells until the person ceases to animate it. Another small group, similar to the above, is that of organizations of winners of a particular international prize. This has been explored in the case of the European armed forces by Ezra Krendle, 28 where the potential impact on NATO forces is of obvious importance. In some cases, however, the conventional terminology is replaced by a religious form, without affecting the conventional character of the organization.
This is only possible where there is a minimal religious hierarchy as is characteristic of some sects. A further group is created, however, when the religious hierarchy supplants any member-determined organizational structure. This is the case typified by the Roman Catholic Church with the range of papal commissions and religious orders, but also in such bodies as. This group may also be considered to include organizations of collectors of somewhat unexpected objects.
Clearly this group includes organizations of little significance. However, this does raise the important questions of where the cut-off point should be located, why, in whose interest, and at whose expense. A variation on this group would include the organizations which might be evaluated as pseudo-scientific or, in another variant, as pseudo-religious. This would, however, raise the questions of how and why the evaluation is to be performed, and again, in whose interest and at whose expense.
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Some would argue that the various bodies promoting world government should be included here. It is interesting to note the reception accorded the International Astronautical Federation when it was founded in One inter-governmental agency rated such a preoccupation as the domain of "lunatics" The editors of the Yearbook of International Organizations at that time were also forced to reassess their own policies on such cases. The word "conference" denotes no single system but is a generic term covering a wide range of common services and common obligations undertaken by shipowners serving particular routes.
Broadly speaking, the term denotes a meeting of lines serving any particular route, aimed at agreement on uniform and stable rates of freight and the provision of services, under stated working conditions in the trade. A conference ranges from a very informal association to a well developed organization with a permanent secretariat behind it. In there were about conferences operating in the various trade routes of the world.
These may take the form of import cartels, export cartels and agreements on standards. They may only involve private corporations or may have the implicit or explicit support of government, or some direct form of government participation. For further updates on this site, subscribe here. Toggle navigation. Change: Questions for the future?
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